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Title: Assessing the chances of success: nave statistics versus kind experience
Authors: Hogarth, Robin M 
Mukherjee, Kanchan 
Soyer, Emre 
Keywords: Additive Processing;Chances Of Success;Expert Advice;Market-Entry Games;Probability Estimates;Simulation
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: American Psychological Association Inc.
Abstract: Additive integration of information is ubiquitous in judgment and has been shown to be effective even when multiplicative rules of probability theory are prescribed. We explore the generality of these findings in the context of estimating probabilities of success in contests. We first define a normative model of these probabilities that takes account of relative skill levels in contests where only a limited number of entrants can win. We then report 4 experiments using a scenario about a competition. Experiments 1 and 2 both elicited judgments of probabilities, and, although participants' responses demonstrated considerable variability, their mean judgments provide a good fit to a simple linear model. Experiment 3 explored choices. Most participants entered most contests and showed little awareness of appropriate probabilities. Experiment 4 investigated effects of providing aids to calculate probabilities, specifically, access to expert advice and 2 simulation tools. With these aids, estimates were accurate and decisions varied appropriately with economic consequences. We discuss implications by considering when additive decision rules are dysfunctional, the interpretation of overconfidence based on contest-entry behavior, and the use of aids to help people make better decisions. (APA PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
ISSN: 0278-7393
DOI: 10.1037/A0028522
Appears in Collections:2010-2019

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